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Ancient Greece was a northeastern Mediterranean civilization, existing from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of classical antiquity (c. AD 600), that comprised a
loose collection of culturally and linguistically related city-states and other territories — unified only once, for 13 years, under Alexander the Great's empire (336-323 BC). Following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period (323–146 BC), during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East from the death of Alexander until the Roman conquest.
The Greek peninsula came under Roman rule during the 146 BC conquest of Greece after the Battle of Corinth. Roman Greece is usually counted from the Roman victory over the Corinthians to the establishment of Byzantium by Constantine as the capital of the Roman Empire in AD 330. The Byzantine Empire
inherited Classical Greek-Hellenistic culture directly, and the preservation of classical Greek learning in medieval Byzantine tradition further
exerted a strong influence on the Islamic Golden Age and the Western European Renaissance.
Classical Greek culture, especially
philosophy, had a powerful influence on ancient Rome, which carried a version of it throughout the Mediterranean and much of Europe. For this reason, Classical Greece is generally considered the cradle of Western civilization, the seminal culture from which the modern West derives many of its founding archetypes and ideas in politics, philosophy, science, and art.
Ancient Greece consisted of several hundred relatively independent city-states ( poleis). Athens fell under a
tyranny in the second half of the 6th century BC. When this tyranny was ended, the Athenians founded the world's first democracy as a radical solution to prevent the aristocracy regaining power.
The ancient Greeks also made important discoveries in the medical field. Hippocrates was a physician of the Classical period, and is referred to as the "father of medicine" in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic school of medicine. This intellectual school revolutionized medicine in Ancient Greece, establishing it as a
discipline distinct from other fields and thus making medicine a profession.
tyranny - absolute control from someone
Thus - therefore
Philosophy - the moral ideas of someone
loose collection - a group of things that are connected in a cmall way
Medieval - a time in European history of around 500 AD to 1500,
inherited - to become the owner of something after someone dies
conquest - to take over an area of land
Discipline - to work hard at something and follow the rules
aristocracy - a royal family
Archetypes - the ideal version of something